Underground Banking
See Alternative Remittance System.
United Nations (UN)
An international organization that was established in 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs to the UN. See also Vienna Convention. The United Nations contributes to the fight against organized crime with initiatives such as the Global Program against Money Laundering (GPML), the key instrument of the UN Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention in this task. Through the GPML, the UN helps member states to introduce legislation against money laundering and to develop mechanisms to combat this crime. The program encourages anti-money laundering policy development, monitors and analyzes the problems and responses, raises public awareness about money laundering and acts as a coordinator of joint anti-money laundering initiatives with other international organizations. See www.un.org.
UN Security Council Resolution 1267
Adopted in 1999, the resolution imposed sanctions on Taliban- controlled Afghanistan for its support of Osama Bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda organization. The sanctions have subsequently been modified and strengthened—they no longer exclusively target Afghanistan and now extend to any individual, group, undertaking or entity participating in planning or financing activities for Al-Qaeda or the Taliban. Member countries are obliged to adopt sanction implementation programs so that financial institutions can block the transactions, and freeze the assets of any person or entity on the list of designated terrorist entities maintained by the UN 1267 Committee.
UN Security Council Resolution 1373 (2001)
Adopted in 2001, the resolution requires member nations to take a series of actions to combat terrorism through the adoption of laws and regulations and the establishment of administrative structures. The resolution also requires member nations to “afford one another the greatest measure of assistance for criminal investigations or criminal proceedings relating to the financing or support of terrorist acts.”
Unusual Transaction
Transaction that appears designed to circumvent reporting requirements, is inconsistent with the account’s transaction patterns or deviates from the activity expected for that type of account.
USA Patriot Act
The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56). Enacted on October 26, 2001, the historic U.S. law brought about momentous changes in the anti-money laundering field, including more than 50 amendments to the Bank Secrecy Act. Title III of the Act, the International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorist Financing Act of 2001, contains most, but not all, of its anti- money laundering-related provisions.