Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
FATF was chartered in 1989 by the Group of Seven industrial nations to foster the establishment of national and global measures to combat money laundering. It is an international policy-making body that sets anti-money laundering standards and counter-terrorist financing measures worldwide. Its Recommendations do not have the force of law. Thirty-five countries and two international organizations are members. In 2012, FATF substantially revised its 40 + 9 Recommendations and reduced them to 40. FATF develops annual typology reports showcasing current money laundering and terrorist financing trends and methods. See www.fatf-gafi.org.
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering in Latin America (GAFILAT)
A FATF-style regional body for Latin America, established in 2000.
Financial Action Task Force-Style Regional Body (FSRB)
FSRBs have forms and functions similar to those of FATF. However, their efforts are targeted to specific regions. In conjunction with FATF, FSRBs constitute an affiliated global network to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.
Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU)
A central national agency responsible for receiving, analyzing, and transmitting disclosures on suspicious transactions to appropriate authorities.
Forfeiture
The involuntary loss of property or assets as a result of legal action. Generally, the owner of the property has failed to comply with the law or the property is linked to some sort of criminal activity.
Freeze
To prevent or restrict the exchange, withdrawal, liquidation, or use of assets or bank accounts. Unlike forfeiture, frozen property, equipment, funds or other assets remain the property of the natural or legal person(s) that held an interest in them at the time of the freezing and may continue to be administered by third parties. The courts may decide to implement a freeze as a means to protect against flight.
Front Company
Any business set up and controlled by another organization. While not necessarily illicit, criminals use front companies to launder money by giving the funds the appearance of legitimate origin. Front companies may subsidize products and services at levels well below market rates or even below manufacturing costs.