Cardholder
Person to whom a financial transaction card is issued, or an additional person authorized to use the card.
Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF)
A FATF-style regional body comprising Caribbean nations, including Aruba, the Bahamas, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica.
Casa de Cambio
Also called a “bureau de change” or an “exchange office,” a casa de cambio offers a range of services that are attractive to money launderers: currency exchange and consolidation of small denomination bank notes into larger ones; exchange of financial instruments such as travelers checks, money orders and personal checks; and telegraphic transfer facilities.
Cash-Intensive Business
Any business in which customers usually pay with cash for the products or services provided, such as restaurants, pizza delivery services, taxi firms, coin-operated machines or car washes. Some money launderers run or use cash-based businesses to commingle illegally obtained funds with cash actually generated by the business.
Cash Collateralized Loans
A cash collateralized loan has cash deposits as the loan’s collateral. The cash deposits can sometimes reside in another jurisdiction.
Cash Deposits
Sums of currency deposited in one or more accounts at a financial institution. Vulnerable to money laundering in the “placement phase,” as criminals move their cash into the non-cash economy by making deposits into accounts at financial institutions.
Cashier’s Check
Common monetary instrument often purchased with cash. Can be used for laundering purposes, cashier’s checks provide an instrument drawn on a financial institution.
CICAD (Spanish: Comisión Interamericana para el Control del Abuso de Drogas)
See Organization of American States—Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission.
Collection Accounts
Immigrants from foreign countries deposit many small amounts of currency into one account where they reside, and the collected sum is transferred to an account in their home country without documentation of the sources of the funds. Certain ethnic groups from Asia or Africa may use collection accounts to launder money.
Commission Rogatoire
Also known as letters rogatory, a commission rogatoire is a written request for legal or judicial assistance sent by the central authority of one country to the central authority of another when seeking evidence from the foreign jurisdiction. The letter typically specifies the nature of the request, the relevant criminal charges in the requesting country, the legal provision under which the request is made, and the information sought.
Concentration Account
Also called an “omnibus account.” Held by a financial institution in its name, a clearing account is used primarily for internal administrative or bank-to-bank transactions in which funds are transmitted and commingled without personally identifying the originators.
Concentration Risk
Concentration risk primarily applies to the asset side of the balance sheet. As a common practice, supervisory authorities not only require financial institutions to have information systems to identify credit concentrations, but also set limits to restrict bank exposure to single borrowers or groups of related borrowers. On the liability side, concentration risk is associated with funding risk, especially the risk of early and sudden withdrawal of funds by large depositors that could harm an institution’s liquidity.
Confidentiality
Keeping certain facts, data and information out of public or unauthorized view. In most jurisdictions, confidentiality is required when filing suspicious transaction or activity reports — the filing institution’s employees cannot notify a customer that a report has been filed. In another context, a breach of confidentiality can occur when an institution discloses client information to enforcement agencies or a financial intelligence unit in violation of the jurisdiction’s bank secrecy laws.
Confiscation
Includes forfeiture where applicable, and means the permanent deprivation of funds or other assets by order of a competent authority or a court. Confiscation or forfeiture takes place through a judicial or administrative procedure that transfers the ownership of specified funds or other assets to the state. Upon transfer, the person(s) or entity (ies) that held an interest in the specified funds or other assets at the time of the confiscation or forfeiture lose all rights, in principle, to the confiscated or forfeited assets.
Corporate Vehicles
Types of legal entities that may be subject to misuse such as private limited companies and public limited companies whose shares are not traded on a stock exchange, trusts, non-profit organizations, limited partnerships and limited liability partnerships, and private investment companies. Occasionally, it is difficult to identify the persons who are the ultimate beneficial owners and controllers of corporate vehicles, which makes the vehicles vulnerable to money laundering.
Correspondent Banking
The provision of banking services by one bank (the “correspondent bank”) to another bank (the “respondent bank”). Large international banks typically act as correspondents for hundreds of other banks around the world. Respondent banks may be provided with a wide range of services, including cash management (e.g., interest-bearing accounts in a variety of currencies), international wire transfers of funds, check clearing services, payable-through accounts and foreign exchange services.
Credit Cards
A plastic card with a credit limit used to purchase goods and services and to obtain cash advances on credit. The cardholder is subsequently billed by the issuer for repayment of the credit extended. Credit cards may be used to launder money when payments of the amounts owed on the card are made with criminal money.
Criminal Proceeds
Any property derived from or obtained, directly or indirectly, through the commission of a crime.
Cross Border
Used in the context of activities that involve at least two countries, such as wiring money from one country to another or taking currency across a border.
Currency
Banknotes and coins that are in circulation as a medium of exchange.
Currency Smuggling
The illicit movement of large quantities of cash across borders, often into countries without strict banking secrecy, poor exchange controls or poor anti-money laundering legislation.
Currency Transaction Report (CTR)
A report that documents a physical currency transaction that exceeds a certain monetary threshold. A CTR can also be filed on multiple currency transactions that occur in one day exceed the required reporting amount. Some countries, including the U.S., have requirements addressing when CTRs should be filed with government authorities.
Custodian
A bank, financial institution, or other entity that is responsible for managing, administering, or safekeeping assets for other persons or institutions. A custodian holds assets to minimize risk of theft or loss, and does not actively trade or handle the assets.
Custody
The act of or authority to safeguard and administer clients’ investments or assets.
Customer Due Diligence (CDD)
In terms of money laundering controls, CDD requires policies, practices and procedures that enable a financial institution to predict with relative certainty the types of transactions in which the customer is likely to engage. CDD includes not only establishing the identity of customers, but also establishing a baseline of account activity to identify those transactions that do not conform to normal or expected transactions.